Center for Applied Research and Public Policy (CARPP)

  Publications - Race and Ethnicity

Racial Wealth Divide is 3 Times Wider than Income Gap, Threatening Economic Opportunity Integrity - by Urban Institute

WASHINGTON, D.C., April 29, 2013 — Why have middle-income blacks and Hispanics seen little, if any, improvement in their economic status relative to whites? New research from the Urban Institute’s Opportunity and Ownership Project points to an ever-widening wealth chasm. In 2010, white families averaged six times the wealth of black and Hispanic households ($632,000 versus $98,000 and $110,000, respectively), up from a 5-to-1 ratio in 1983. Wealth is total assets, such as bank and retirement accounts and home value, minus debts, including mortgages, student loans, and credit-card balances.  Read article

The Moynihan Report Revisited - by Urban Institute

In 1965's The Negro Family: The Case for National Actions, Daniel Patrick Moynihan described a "tangle of pathologies" --from disintegrating families to poor educational outcomes, weak job prospects, concentrated neighborhood poverty, dysfunctional communities, and crime--that would create a self-perpetuating cycle of deprivation, hardship, and inequality for black families. Read article

Education and Achievement A Focus on Latino "Immigrant" Children by: Eugene E. García 

An estimated 5 million English language learners (ELLs) are in public schools in the United States, most living in immigrant families (Mahoney et al. 2010). This high number of ELLs has brought a change in the demographics of public schools in the nation and a need to account for the educational experiences of these students, both linguistically and academically. Read Article

Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places In the United States: 1790 to 1990 by Campbell Gibson

This paper presents decennial census population totals for the 100 largest cities and other urban places in the United States based on the 21 decennial censuses taken from 1790 to 1990. The paper represents the first time that the populations of the largest urban places at each census have been published in a single report and was prepared in response to numerous requests for this type of information.  fact brief

Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1790 to 1990 for the United States, Region, Divisions, and States by Campbell Gibson and Kay Jung

The following three reports present historical census statistics that are more detailed and/or more recent than historical census statistics published in reports from the decennial census of population or in Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975a). Population of States and Counties of the United States: 1790 - 1990, by Richard L. Forstall. U.S. Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1996. Data for the 1900 to 1990 period are available also on the Census Bureau's Internet site.  article

1880 Overview

The act authorizing the 1880 census gave supervision of the enumeration to a body of officers, known as supervisors of the census, who were specifically chosen for work on the census. The superintendent of the census and all supervisors were to be presidential appointees, subject to Senate confirmation. The terms of both were to expire when the census results were compiled and published.  article

Less Than Equal: Racial Disparities in Wealth Accumulation

When it comes to economic gaps between whites and communities of color in the United States, income inequality tells part of the story. But let’s not forget about wealth.Wealth isn’t just money in the bank, it’s insurance against tough times, tuition to get a better education and a better job, savings to retire on, and a spring board into the middle class. In short, wealth translates to opportunity.  article

What Does a High School Diploma Get You? Employment, Race, and Transition into Adulthood by Marla McDaniel and Daniel Kuehn

We compare the employment of African American and white youth as they transition to adulthood from age 18 to 22, focusing on high school graduates and high school dropouts who did not attend college. Using OLS and hazard models, we analyze the relative employment rates, and employment consistency, stability, and timing, controlling for a number of factors including family income, academic aptitude, prior work experience, and neighborhood poverty. article

Discrimination and Mortgage Lending in America by Monique W. Morris

In July 2007 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed suit in Los Angeles federal court against 15 of the country’s largest mortgage lending institutions. As of the publication of this report, there are 13 major lending institutions named in the lawsuit, including Accredited Home Lenders, Inc.; Bear Stearns Residential Mortgage Corp. d/b/a Encore Credit; Chase Bank USA; Citi Mortgage; First Franklin Financial Corp.; First Tennessee Bank d/b/a First Horizon National Corp.; Fremont Investment &
Loan; GMAC Mortgage Corp., LLC; GMAC ResCap; HBSC Mortgage Corporation (USA) and HSBC Bank (USA), N.A.; Long Beach Mortgage Co.; SunTrust Mortgage; and Wells Fargo Bank, N.A., and Wells Fargo Home Mortgage, Inc., alleging systemic, institutionalized racism in subprime home mortgage lending. article

Countering Discrimination and Mortgage Lending in America by Monique W. Morris

In July 2007 the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) filed suit in Los Angeles federal court against 15 of the country’s largest mortgage lending institutions. In this first known lawsuit to challenge discriminatory lending practices on a broad scale, the NAACP alleged that these lenders violated the Fair Housing Act, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, and the Civil Rights Act in their practices toward African Americans. Lenders name in the suit have all made high ‐ cost subprime loans to African Americans who qualified for prime loans. article

Diversity Practices that Work: The American Worker Speaks- by National Urban League

For more than 40 years, corporations across the nation have invested a great deal of energy and resources in the area of diversity. Today diversity is not only part of the culture of many corporations but a core business strategy as well. article

Learning from Disaster: Gulf Coast Colleges and Universities The Lessons of Hurricane Katrina by UNCF

Some educational institutions are only now recovering from steep enrollment declines, the need to restore campus facilities and the lingering psychological impact of the storm on students, faculty and staff. In addition, disruptions from natural disasters often fall hardest on those who come from already vulnerable groups and communities in too many of these cases, an education interrupted may become an education never completed.  article

Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2010

This report looks at our nation’s changing racial and ethnic diversity. It is part of a series that analyzes population and housing data collected from the 2010 Census, and it provides a snapshot of race and Hispanic origin in the United States. Racial and ethnic population group distributions and growth at the national level and at lower levels of geography are presented. Fact brief

Overview of Race and Hispanic Origin: 2000

Every census must adapt to the decade in which it is administered. New technologies emerge and change the way the U.S. Census Bureau collects and processes data. More importantly, changing lifestyles and emerging sensitivities among the people of the United States necessitate modifications to the questions that are asked. Fact brief


The African American Biographical Database is a resource of first resort when you are looking for biographical information, including photographs and illustrations, for African Americans. Read article

The Case for Reparations- by Ta-Nehisi Coates- The Atlantic Magazine (May 2014

Two hundred fifty years of slavery. Ninety years of Jim Crow. Sixty years of separate but equal. Thirty-five years of racist housing policy. Until we reckon with our compounding moral debts, America will never be whole. Read Article


Historically black colleges and universities(HBCUs)have extensive experience identifying students with potential, enrolling and supporting them through graduation. Particularly in the STEM fields, HBCUs lead many of the nation’s colleges in graduating African Americans. Fact Sheet

RACE FOR RESULTS: building a path to opportunity for all children- The Annie Casey foundation

From the time our children are born, we imagine a bright future for them: a solid foundation of education and development in their early years, excellent health care, high school graduation, a good college education and a career path that launches them toward lifelong achievement and economic self-sufficiency. As parents, nothing will stop us from doing everything within our power to make that happen. And as Americans, our concern extends beyond our own doorsteps. We want success for children in rural towns and urban communities across the nation because we understand that providing opportunity to all children, regardless of their race or ethnicity, is essential to America’s future prosperity. Read report

Toxic Communities Environmental Racism, Industrial Pollution, and Residential Mobility- by Dorseta Taylor

From St. Louis to New Orleans, from Baltimore to Oklahoma City, there are poor and minority neighborhoods so beset by pollution that just living in them can be hazardous to your health. Due to entrenched segregation, zoning ordinances that privilege wealthier communities, or because businesses have found the 'paths of least resistance, ' there are many hazardous waste and toxic facilities in these communities, leading residents to experience health and wellness problems on top of the race and class discrimination most already experience. Read article

Census Bureau Considers How to Measure a More Diverse America-By Tanzina Vega

When Alexa Aviles received her census form in 2010, she was frustrated by the choices. Like all Hispanics, Ms. Aviles, a Puerto Rican who lives in Brooklyn, was first asked to identify her ethnicity and then to answer a question about her race. Ms. Aviles, 41, who works for a nonprofit, thought, "I'm all of these!" In annoyance, she checked Hispanic, and then identified herself as white, black and "some other race." News Brief

Freedom Riders museum opens in Montgomery, Ala.- by the Grio

The Alabama Historical Commission has prepared the museum in downtown Montgomery and says several of the original Freedom Riders, including Georgia Rep. John Lewis, are scheduled to attend the dedication at 10 a.m. Friday. Article

DC's economic recovery: an unequal distribution- by Gregory Acs

As Mayor Bowser settles into her office, she leads a city that is growing more prosperous. Unfortunately, too many DC residents are not sharing in that prosperity, resulting in uneven economic progress across the city.

Following the most recent recession, economic progress in DC has been mixed: median income rose, but so did unemployment. Article

Beyond Broke- Why Closing the Racial Wealth is a Priority for National Economic Security- By Rebecca Tippett, Ph.D., Avis Jones-DeWeever, Ph.D., Maya Rockeymoore, Ph.D., Darrick Hamilton, Ph.D., William Darity, Jr., Ph.D

Despite overwhelming evidence that the racial wealth gap persists in the U.S., it remains a taboo topic in mainstream policy circles and most officials studiously avoid offering targeted solutions to help close this gap. However, this issue is ignored at our nation’s peril given the anticipated growth of racial and ethnic groups over the next few decades. Article

Ali scripted funeral plans in exacting detail in 'The Book'- By BRUCE SCHREINER and CLAIRE GALOFARO

LOUISVILLE, Ky. (AP) -- Muhammad Ali and his innermost circle started a document years ago that grew so thick they began calling it "The Book."

Its contents will soon be revealed. In the pages, the boxing great planned in exacting detail how he wished to say goodbye to the world... Read article

Separte and Unequal: The neighborhood Gap for Blacks, Hispanics and Asians in Metropolitan America- by John R. Logan

The most recent census data show that on average, black and hispanic households live in neighborhoods with more than one and a half times the poverty rate of neighborhoods where the average non-hispanic white lives. Read article

Racial and Ethnic Disparities Among Low-Income Families

Low-income status in the United States varies significantly by race and ethnicity. Of the more than 13.4 million families with children living on incomes less than 200 percent of the federal poverty level, 30 percent are Hispanic, 22 percent are black or African American, and 6 percent are other nonwhites. Read article

Race and ethnicity in the United States- Wikipedia

The United States has a racially and ethnically diverse population. The United States Census officially recognizes six racial categories: White American, Black or African American, Native American and Alaska Native, Asian American, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and people of two or more races; a category called "some other race" is also used in the census and other surveys, but is not official. The United States Census Bureau also classifies Americans as "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino", which identifies Hispanic and Latino Americans as an ethnicity (not a race) distinct from others that composes the largest minority group in the nation. Read article

The Racial Wealth Gap: Why A Typical White Household Has 16 Times The Wealth Of A Black One- by Laura Shin

The United States is becoming much more racially and ethnically diverse. At the same time, it’s becoming more unequal in terms of wealth and income. These two trends are combining in an uncomfortable way: the wealth and income divide is happening along racial and ethnic lines. Read article